JS Back-to-Basics: Part II

June 1, 2020 | 5 minute read

We’ll expand on last week’s concepts and talk about other exciting JS foundational concepts!

Note: This is a follow up is a continuation to last week’s article.

JS Back-to-basics Part II

This week, we’ll expand on last week’s concepts and talk about other exciting JS foundational concepts!

Quick Reminder In JS we basically

  • Assign variables
  • Write functions

That’s all we really do, all the time!

As soon as JS engine sees () it creates an Execution Context (EC):

  • Items get pushed to our call stack each with its own execution context
  • It starts with the global() execution context (first item in the stack), then narrows down to the function being called.
    • This global() has the globalObject and this.
    • In browser the globalObject is the window.
    • Depending on the function context this might refer to one thing or the other.
    • You can add functions, variables to this globalObject
  • Execution base is where you run your code.

Lexical Environment / Scope

  • It means where you write something.
  • They are like little universes each time there’s a new execution context.
  • Functions within functions are in the lexical environment of another functions (closures).
  • Knowing where it was written, the compiler can make decisions what to do.
  • Remember every time we add a new function we create a “new planet”.

Execution context tells which lexical environment (“planet”) is currently running.

Our lexical scope (available data + variables where functions were defined) determines our available variables NOT where the function is called (dynamic scope). It doesn’t matter where we call our functions.

The very first lexical environment is the global environment.


In the creation phase (when set globalObject and ‘this’) before execution of code we have hosting:

  • Hoisting is the behavior of moving variables and fn declarations to their context.
  • During creation phase (first go through) it allocates memory. As soon as they see variables or function it allocates them, the first run they will be as undefined.
    • Variables with var are then partially hoisted. Var is as undefined.
      • let and const are NOT hoisted.
    • Function declarations are fully hoisted.
    • Function expressions (defined with var) are partially and undefined.
  • Compiler is not moving lines but in the first pass is just allocating memory

Function Invocation

Remember JS programs assign in memory variables and then write functions to do something with those variables.

So what are functions?

  • Function declaration start with function keyword. They get hoisted. Define at run-time.
  • Function expression are saved to a variable. Expressions don’t get hoisted. Defined at parse-time, first run because hoisted. .
  • Functions have invocation/call/execution
    • We invoke by running in parenthesis like myFunction().
  • With function invocation we get the arguments keyword.
    • This arguments keyword gives us an object with the arguments.
    • arguments is only available when we create new execution context with a function.
    • Remember do not use arguments keyword. They are not an array, so cannot use array methods but if you use Array.from you could convert into array object it.
  • You can also use spread operator in our arguments such as. function marry(...args) {console.log(args[0])}

Variable Environment

What about variables created inside of execution contexts of functions? They are called Variable Environment.

Some functions have access to certain variables, while others not. Remember functions have their own execution content in which variables reside and the first execution context is the global() one.

Variables default to their outermost execution context. Execution context have their own variable environment.

Scope Chain

Each EC has a link to the outer world. When the code runs it goes down the scope chain in parent environment if it doesn’t find variable.

var x = 'x'

function printX() {

Lexical or static scope, only by looking at code determines which environment a certain variable lives in. Scope chain starts inner and goes all the way to global context.

Function lexical environment, creates closures on environment. This closures are defined internally so you cannot access outside for a variable that is defined internally.


Reminder Remember undefined means, yes we have ‘x’ variable but it doesn’t have any value while something like Reference Error is like ‘x’ is completely undeclared not found anywhere in the scope chain.

Lexical environment === [[scope]]. So each environment has a field, and each field with its own scope and the link to next scope. Also named [[scope]]. Scopes will give you all the scopes you can test in console.

Function vs Block Scope Scope means what variables we have access to.

Other coding languages have block scope. Any time you do code in curly brackets {} you create block scope. In JS this is done with let and const create block scope!

So let and const create block scope just like in {}

Caution with Global Variables

You can pollute global namespace. Remember we have limited space and our memory heap is limited. You can pollute global scope by keeping adding global variables.

You can also overwrite global variables. So avoid them.

Concluding Thoughts

This seems to be a robust discussion on JS foundational concepts. There are still other concepts worth exploring including IIFE, this keyword and more. Please be sure to read on them. An article I previously wrote about this can be found here.